About Turkey Information
History of Istanbul
Already founded in 660 BC Doric Greeks on the European shore of the Bosphorus, the city of Byzantium. The reason for this was the ideal geographical location on the Bosphorus, which links the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea. A fact of Byzantium grow quickly into a major trade center allowed. Constantine I, who united the Roman Empire, was the new capital the name Nova Roma, New – Rome. After the division of the kingdom of 395 it was Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. Emperor Justinian I was the one who did magnificently to expand as the last great ruler of the Late Antique Constantinople. As the center of the Byzantine Empire was Constantinople in the Middle Ages, the richest and largest city in Europe. In 1204 the Crusaders were plundering and murdering her to Constantinople and inflicted heavy damage. It was not until 1261 the town was retaken by the Byzantines. 1453 it was Sultan Mehmed II, who took the city and made it an Ottoman stronghold. The Ottomans under Sultan Suleiman I reached (1520 – 1566) peak. Under his influence, numerous mosques and palaces, bridges and wells. Subsequently, it came to the acceptance of Ottoman influence in the region. With the collapse of the Ottoman army in the Balkan war 1912/1913, there was heavy fighting between the European powers for control of the Bosporus strait. As a result of the Battle of Gallipoli in 1920 the kingdom was divided among the victorious Allied powers and occupied. In Mustafa Kemal Ataturk called, began in 1919 the Turkish War of Liberation, whose result was declared in 1923 the Turkish Republic. Its first president Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in Ankara, built his seat of government. Nevertheless, Istanbul was now no more capital, it retained its cultural and economic significance. With its rapid growth, it developed since then becoming a European metropolis.
The city structure
The Istanbul metropolitan area can be divided into three areas. – Sun is in the south, on the European side, the old city center of old Constantinople with the districts and Eminöni Fatik. – European to see the district of Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş, which lie north of the Golden Horn. In the nearby former villages along the Bosphorus, you will find magnificent wooden villas of Istanbul, which served as a summer residence. – The districts of Üsküdar and Kadıköy be on the Asian side, they were once independent towns. Here one finds the Istanbul residential and business district.
The rapidly growing city expands around always more, so the modern city are taking today a majority of the urban area.
The old city of Istanbul:
Sahil Yolu Florya / Kennedy Bulvarı
From Eminönü – space extends from the beautiful promenade Flrorya Sahil Yolu on the Marmara sea along until after Yeşil Köy. The beautiful parks here in summer are a popular spot for walkers and anglers.
The Yeni Cami, the New Mosque of Sultan mother, is located directly on Eminönü – Platz. It was the example of the architect Sinan designed mosque Prince after. The interior is lavishly decorated with faience. 1597 was the construction by the mother Mehmet III. Commissioned in.
Mısır Carsisi / Egyptian Bazaar
Immediately adjacent to the mosque the Egyptian Bazaar. The particularly beautiful, oriental market near the Grand Bazaar is the most notable of the city. The mysterious scents point out here that spices of all kinds are offered for sale.
Topkapi / Kanonentorpalast
From the main entrance in the soğuk – Çeşme – Sokak leads to the Kanonentorpalast. The former residence of the sultans was already in the 15th Century on the site of the ancient acropolis of Byzantium built. The sprawling palace complex is public parks, divided into several courtyards surrounded by walls and surrounded. Mehmet II had his seat of government here, Süleyman the Magnificent had to expand the residence and until 1855 as the home of the sultans was used.
Topkapi Palace / Archeological Museum
In the Archaeological Museum, visitors will find important prehistoric, Greek, Roman and Byzantine exhibits. Including such notable pieces as the sarcophagi from the Königsnekropole of Saida in the fourth Century before Christ’s.
Topkapi / Çinili Köşk / Fayencemuseum
Opposite the Archaeological Museum, is remarkable Fayencemuseum, the collections of Turkish ceramics and tiles, and faience of 12 – 19 Century houses.
Topkapi / Hagia Eirene / Irene Church
The Irene Church, the Church of God’s peace is one of the best preserved late Byzantine monuments of Istanbul. 381 Second Ecumenical Council was held here instead of this.
Topkapi / Porcelain Collection
On the second courtyard there are the former palace kitchens. There, every day up to 20 000 meals were prepared in what is now the porcelain collection housed. Here you can mostly Chinese porcelains and pottery of 10 -18. Century admire.
Topkapi / Harem
Through the gates of happiness leads to the third court. There were, in a maze of rooms and corridors, the heavily guarded women’s rooms. Only the Sultan, his blood relatives and the eunuchs are likely to enter the apartments of the women.
Ayasofya / Haghia Sophia
The Hagia Sophia, the Church of Divine Wisdom, is the most famous monument of the city and one of the most important monuments in the world. The church is now a state museum. Emperor Justinian I had 532-537 edify them. The huge building is a 58 m high dome surmounted by. Its interior is equipped with finest marble and metals, along columns found valuable here from many ancient temples into place. The magnificent central dome over the main room is lit by numerous windows. In the 15th and 16 Century, the four minarets with their massive foundation added to by existing counter the danger of collapse earthquake.
Yerebatan Saryı / cistern
The interesting building from the sixth Century, is located northwest of the Yerebatan – street. The cistern is one of the most important throughout Istanbul. The complex is 140 m long 70 m wide and stands on 336 pillars.
Atmeydanı / Hippodrome
The Atmeydanı, the Ross course is situated south-west of Ayasofya Meydanı, it is about 300 m long. Already in the year 203 AD Septimus Severus had begun with the establishment. Completed by 330 Constantine the former center of Byzantine life. Magnificent games but also bloody battles were fought here.
Turk ve Islam Eserleri Müzesi / Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art
At the Hippodrome stands the former palace of Ibrahim Pasha. He was the Grand Vizier Suleyman’s the Magnificent. Today the palace houses the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art. It displays art from Seljuk and Ottoman period, including fine carpets, ceramics and miniature painting.
Sultan – Ahmet – Mosque / Blue Mosque
Sultan Ahmet I left 1609 – 1616 the Blue Mosque built by. It is regarded as one of the best works of Turkish architecture , and after the Hagia Sophia, the most famous building in Istanbul. The powerful 43 meter high dome is topped by six minarets.
Kapali Çarşı / Grand Bazaar
The Grand Bazaar, near the Bayezid – mosque is a separate district. It is one of the main attractions of the city. In the maze of alleys and streets, on this most largest covered bazaar in the world, offering some 4,500 products to its stores.
Beyazit – Mosque
The Beyazit – mosque west of the Grand Bazaar on Beyazıtplatz. The son of Mehmet II, Sultan Beyazit, had built them from 1498 to 1505. The mosque was in the 18 Century in the interior painted in Turkish rococo style.
Süleymaniye / Mosque Suleyman the Magnificent
North of the university is from 1549 – 1557 Suleyman the Magnificent Mosque was built. It is the greatest work of the architect Sinan. The most harmonious construction is a 53 m high dome surmounted by.
Sehzade – Mosque
Also built by the architect Sinan, the Sehzade – mosque. It is Sehzadebasi Caddesi to see the. The early masterpiece of the architect Sinan, with wonderful interior was created from 1543 – 1547 in memory of the favorite son of Mohammed Suleiman and Roxelane.
Selimiye / Sultan – Selim – Mosque
The Sultan – Selim – are found to the north of Sultan Mosque – Mehmet – mosque. The city on a hill of 1520 – 1526 built mosque is the simplest of the Sultan mosque. Suleyman the Magnificent was in memory of his father Selim I build them. Very nice is the view from the terrace over the Golden Horn.
The city wall
From the largest Muslim cemetery in the old town you have a good look at the 7 km long, some well-preserved, massive city wall, which is staffed with numerous towers.
Eyüp – Mosque
In the suburb of Eyüp, the 1459 has built Eyüp – mosque. In several converted church is the holy Eyüp ENSAN, a confidant of the Prophet Mohammed, to be buried. Once there was a solemn Schwertumgürtung new sultan instead of one. Today is the Eyüp – Mosque one of the most important pilgrimage destinations devout Muslims.
The approximately 500 m long Galata Bridge connects the Eminönü – place over the Golden Horn with the Karaköy – place in the southern part of Galata. The Golden Horn, which is the 7 km long horn-shaped harbor of Istanbul.
The Galatakai extends along the mouth of the Golden Horn to the Bosphorus. Here are the departure points of the Turkish and foreign shipping lines.
About Haraçci Ali Caddesi is through steep streets with many shops to Galata Tower. He belonged to the former city fortifications. Today, you find a restaurant and a nightclub. From the tower further up you get to the tunnel space, here begins the main street of Beyoğlu, the Istiklal Caddesi. It leads north to the Meydanı Taksim, the Taksim Square. There are many hotels, churches and schools and hospitals, in the 19th Century in modern European design have emerged.
From Taksim – square leads the Cumhuriyet Caddesi, it is considered the principal streets of Istanbul. In its vicinity are also many wealthy villas in Istanbul.
Dolmabahçe Sarayi / Dolmabahçe – Palace
About Gümüşuyu Caddesi from Taksim to come – place to Dolmabahçe district. There you also find the built Dolmabahçe 1854 – Palace. It was built by Sultan Abdulmecit I in the Turkish Renaissance style. Until 1918 the Turkish sultans resided here. Later, Ataturk lived in the palace, he died here in 1938.
The Asian district of Üsküdar best you can with the car ferry at the landing Kabataş to the Galata Bridge is located on the northeast reach. The district, with its winding, cobbled streets, old wooden houses and the old mosques, has retained its oriental charm.
Kızıl Adalar / Princes’ Islands
In the northeastern part of the Marmara Sea, about 30 km from Istanbul, are the scenery is charming Princes’ Islands. They are characterized by well-tended parks and gardens and offer attractive water sports and beaches. Wealthy residents have here in Istanbul. As the main means of transport carriages are only allowed on the islands, a situation of stress, quiet trips promise. Already the trip with the passenger ship takes about 1 hour with is an experience.
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